Vatican Agreements

On 18 December 1996, the following three conventions were signed between the Holy See and the Republic of Croatia: on the basis of the principles of religious equality in the Croatian Constitution, the agreements between the Republic of Croatia and the Holy See resulted in the granting of benefits comparable to certain other religious organisations. The budget allocated to aid to religious communities in the 2017 budget was HRK 300 million. [8] The Government of Croatia and the Holy See have signed four bilateral agreements (also known as concordant or Vatican agreements) and a protocol. Although the agreements proved controversial due to the financial burden and other non-recurring and ongoing burdens of agreements imposed on the Croatian state (in relation to the Croatian national budget), no Croatian government has ever attempted to change them. From the point of view of international law, these agreements can be considered unfair to Croatia because they impose obligations on the Croatian state, in particular, but not on the Holy See. [1] [2] [3] [4] The agreements included a political treaty that created the Vatican City State and guaranteed the Holy See full and independent sovereignty. The Pope has been committed to constant neutrality in international relations and abstention from mediation in a controversy, unless all parties expressly demand it. In the first article of the treaty, Italy reaffirmed the principle, enshrined in the statute of the Kingdom of Italy of 4 March 1848, that “the Catholic, apostolic and Roman religion is the only religion of the state.” [20] The annexed financial agreement was accepted as a settlement of all the Holy See`s claims against Italy resulting from the loss of temporal power of the Papal States in 1870. Negotiations on the settlement of the Roman question began in 1926 between the Italian government and the Holy See and culminated in the agreements of the Latran Pacts, signed for King Viktor Emmanuel III of Italy by Prime Minister Benito Mussolini and pope Pius XI by Cardinal Secretary Pietro Gasparri [17] on 11 February 1929. [18] It was ratified on June 7, 1929. [19] Laterian Treaty (Italian: Patti Lateranensi; Latin: Pacta Lateranensia) was part of the 1929 Latran Pacts, an agreement between the Kingdom of Italy under Benito Mussolini and the Holy See under Pius XI to resolve the long-standing Roman question.